Morphology is the study of how words are put together. A lively introduction to the subject, this textbook is intended for undergraduates with relatively little background in linguistics. Providing data from a wide variety of languages, it includes hands-on activities such as ´challenge´ boxes, designed to encourage students to gather their own data and analyze it, work with data on websites, perform simple experiments, and discuss topics with each other. There is also an extensive introduction to the terms and concepts necessary for analyzing words. Unlike other textbooks it anticipates the question ´is it a real word?´ and tackles it head on by looking at the distinction between dictionaries and the mental lexicon. This second edition has been thoroughly updated, including new examples and exercises as well as a detailed introduction to using linguistic corpora to find and analyze morphological data.
WORLD ENGLISHES SECOND EDITION provides an overview of the global variation in vocabulary, grammar, phonology and pragmatics of English and includes coverage of spoken varieties that have only recently been researched, as well as changes occurring due to the increasing use of English by non-natives internationally.
Why is there an ´h´ in ghost? William Caxton, inventor of the printing press and his Flemish employees are to blame: without a dictionary or style guide to hand in fifteenth century Bruges, the typesetters simply spelled it the way it sounded to their foreign cars, and it stuck. This book takes you on a journey through English spelling.
Using a foreign language is one of the greatest talents anyone can have. However, if it is not required to use a foreign language in everyday life, the risk of losing proficiency is big. There are several practical strategies that can be helpful in a foreign language setting. Hence, this study mainly aimed at identifying the English proficiency retention strategies which were adopted by Iranian adult advanced English language learners. It also aimed at investigating the effect of gender and education level on second language proficiency retention.
The History of English: An Introduction provides a chronological analysis of the linguistic, social, and cultural development of the English language, from before its establishment in Britain around the year 450 to the present. Each chapter represents a new stage in the development of the language from Old English through Middle English to Modern Global English, all illustrated with a rich and diverse selection of primary texts showing changes in language resulting from contact, conquest and domination, and the expansion of English around the world. The History of English goes beyond the usual focus on English in the UK and the USA to include the wider global course of the language during and following the Early Modern English period. This perspective therefore also includes a historical review of English in its pidgin and creole varieties and as a native and/or second language in the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and Australasia. The History of English is essential reading for any student of the English language and will be of relevance to any course addressing the origins of the English language.
English language learning in itself is a complex and many sided, interactive process. As you would expect, a language is learnt by using it- and this means using it communicatively in context and situations. For this to be achieved, words, phrases and sentences have to be wrapped about with grammatical and lexical rules in order to bring about English as a foreign language to life. It is against this background that this manuscript has attempted to teach English language fundamentals by adopting analytical approaches of a sanctioned or authorised usage through the use of long-standing custom or usage of words, phrases and sentences. In other words, grammatical concepts of modern spoken and written English have been explained on how to use them in context followed by a series of examples. Prescriptive Lexis and Grammar for Communication has been written as a self-study grammar manuscript to learners of English as a second language. However, teachers may also find it useful as an additional reference course material in cases where further work on grammar is inevitable and necessary.
The educational policies regarding English language has been revised during sector reforms 2006 which resulted in reformation of National Curriculum for English Language (NCEL) conforming to the international standards. Despite of these efforts, Pakistani students still find difficulty in learning English language at higher secondary level. To unfold this problem, in this book, NCEL is evaluated, in contrast to Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), qualitatively. Moreover, the quantitative study addresses the major challenges faced by the teachers at the said level and their perception about recommended language teaching methodologies. The issues are highlighted and recommendations are made. This book is a great piece of knowledge for teachers, researchers and policymakers in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) and English as Second Language (ESL).
The New Oxford Style Manual brings together the new editions of two essential reference works in a single volume. Combining New Hart´s Rules with the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, this is the definitive guide to the written word. New Hart´s Rules, Oxford´s definite guide to style, gives authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication in print and electronically. Topics covered include how to punctuate and hyphenate accurately, capitalization guidelines, structuring text coherently, how to use quotations and citations clearly, how to provide accurate references, UK and US usage, and much more. Recent developments in the publishing industry, such as scientific publishing conventions have been included in the up-to-date second edition. These guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors which features 25,000 A to Z entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The New Oxford Style Manual also includes superb appendices for quick reference including proofreading marks, countries and currencies, and alphabets. Combining these two updated works and drawing on the unrivalled research and expertise of the Oxford Reference and Dictionaries departments, this volume is an essential part of every editor´s and writer´s toolkit.
The dynamic between the biographer and the subject is, perhaps, one of the most fascinating aspects of biography as a genre. How does the biographer stage the illusion that is the narrative life, the illusion that the subject assumes a living form through words? In contrast to purely fictional forms, biography writing does not allow total freedom to the biographer in this creative act. Ideally, a biography`s backbone is structured by accurate historical facts. But its spirit lies elsewhere. The way a biographer captures the spirit of a subject is intriguingly shaped by the historical distance between the two. We find three types of distance in biographical narrative: First, where the biographer and the subject personally know one another; second, where the biographer is a near contemporary of the subject; and third, where biographer and subject are distinctly separated; in some cases, by hundreds of years. In this revised and expanded edition, Rana Tekcan explores how some of the most accomplished biographers manage to recreate ´´life´´ across time and space. She looks at their illusionary art through the narrative strategies in Samuel Johnson`s Life of Savage, James Boswell`s Life of Johnson, Lytton Strachey`s Eminent Victorians, Michael Holroyd`s Lytton Strachey, Park Honan`s Jane Austen, and Andrew Motion`s Keats.